Crowding of positions must now be guarded against, to prevent the spinning of double cocoons (doupions) by two worms spinning together and so interlacing their threads that they can only be reeled for a coarser and inferior thread.
(5) Raw silk skeins are often re-reeled; and in this process part has to be discarded: this being known to the trade as gum-waste.
It is only floss, injured and unreelable cocoons, the husks of reeled cocoons, and other waste from reeling, with certain wild silks, which are treated by the spun silk process, and the silk thereby produced loses much of the beauty, strength and brilliance which are characteristic of the manufactures from reeled silk.
These ends being secured, the cocoons are transferred to a basin or tray containing water heated to from 140° to 150° F., in which they float while the silk is being reeled off.
This increased production of medium silk, and the growing demand for fine sorts, induced many of the cocoon-growers in the Levant to sell their cocoons to Europeans, who reeled them in Italian fashion under the name of " Patent Brutia," thus producing a very fine valuable silk.