Long, which are not to be pruned unless they are unequal in strength, a defect which is rather to be remedied by summer pinching than by winter pruning.
A shoot d, the growth of which is favoured by destroying the useless spray e above the blossoms, and pinching off the points of those which are necessary to perfect the fruit.
They may be produced, by taking care, during the summer pruning or disbudding, to preserve a number of the little shoots emitted by the yearly wood, only pinching off the minute succulent points.
In length, should be stopped by pinching out the point, this giving rise to lateral shoots.
Winter pruning is effected when the tree is comparatively at rest, and is therefore less liable to " bleeding " or outpouring of sap. Summer pruning or pinching off the tips of such of the younger shoots as are not required for the extension of the tree, when not carried to too great an extent, is preferable to the coarser more reckless style of pruning.