The " ruby " sand consists chiefly of fine garnets and magnetites, with a few rose-quartz grains.
The ores are principally magnetites (New York is the largest producer of magnetite ore among the states, producing about 45% of the total for the United States in 1907 and 1908), but red haematites occur in the N.
Magnetites were also early employed, at first in Catalan forges, in which by means of a direct process the metal was secured from the ores and forged into blooms without being cast; later they were smelted in blast furnaces.
The iron deposits are very extensive, and the ores consist of red haematites, magnetites, titanic, chrome and manganese irons.
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