These ancient states began to decline in the 7th century B.e., and on their ruins rose the Persian empire, which with various political metamorphoses continued to be an important power till the 7th century A.D., after which all western Asia was overwhelmed by the Moslem wave, and old landmarks and kingdoms were obliterated.
His protest against the Concordat of the 21st of February 1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East, his successful opposition to the entry of foreign religious orders, and his advocacy of civil marriage, were the chief landmarks in his battle with Ultramontanism, and his Estudos sobre o Casamento Civil were put on the Index.
During the rest of the century the leading landmarks are the three royal commissions known by the names of their chairmen: (1) Lord Clarendon's on nine public schools, Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, St Paul's and Merchant Taylors' (1861-1864), resulting in the Public Schools Act of 1868; (2) Lord Taunton's on 782 endowed schools (1864-1867), followed by the act of 1869; and (3) Mr Bryce's on secondary education (1894-1895).
Among the landmarks of South Orange are an old stone house of unknown date, but mentioned in legal documents describing the surrounding property as early as 1680; the Baldwin House (c. 1717); and the Timothy Ball House (1743).
The charter that mentions the Wiltshire " Grendel's mere " speaks also of a place called Beowan ham (" Beowa's home "), and another Wiltshire charter has a " Scyld's tree " among the landmarks enumerated.