(ELECTROnic pharmaCEUTICAL) Bioelectronic devices implanted in the human body. Pacemakers and defibrillators were the first such devices, followed by implants in the spine, ears and eyes. Instead of drugs (pharmaceutical), electroceutical devices stimulate nerves and tissue.
In 2014, Stanford University researchers Ada Poon and John Ho invented a wireless chip the size of a grain of rice (top) that attaches to and stimulates nerves to relieve chronic pain and other diseases. "Neurostimulator" chips can be implanted deep in the body and powered externally via "midfield" electromagnetic radiation. The implants can contain their own minuscule rechargeable battery or be batteryless and activated when therapy is needed. (Images courtesy of Poon Lab, Stanford Engineering Department.)