Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
Chronometers were used for timing, and the result at 15.9° C. was U = 340 9 met./sec., whence U0=330.6 met./sec. (F.
Her father, William Mitchell (1791-1869), .was a school teacher and self-taught astronomer, who rated chronometers for Nantucket whalers, was an overseer of Harvard University (1857-1865), and for a time was employed by the United States Coast Survey.
There is a school of industrial art (engraving and enamelling watch cases) and a school of watch-making (including instruction in the manufacture of chronometers and other scientific instruments of precision).
Steel pens, chronometers, electric and electric-telegraph plant,, bronze, chemicals, soap, lamps, linoleum, china, pianofortes, furniture, gloves, buttons, artificial flowers and ladies' mantles, the last of an annual value exceeding £5,000,000.
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