The third theory is that of Bunge, who says that in chlorotic conditions there is an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen in the bowel, changing the food iron into sulphide of iron, which Bunge states cannot be absorbed.
Muller, Beitrrige zur Orographie and Hydrographie von Esthland (1869-1871); Bunge, Das Herzogthum Esthland enter den Konigen von Drinemark (1877); and Seraphim, Geschichte Liv-, Est-, and Kurlands (2nd ed., 1897) and various papers in the FinnischUgrische Forschungen.
Dr Bunge found Bolshoy to consist of granite protruding from beneath non-fossiliferous deposits; while the promontory of Svyatoy Nos Qonsists of basalt hills, 1400 ft.
Flocks of geese and other birds come to the islands from the north (Bunge and Toll), as also the gull Lestris pomarina, which feeds chiefly on the lemming.
A scientific expedition under Dr Alexander Bunge (including Baron Eduard Toll) explored it in 1885-1886.