The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.
Nuda, was found by Bunge in waste ground about Peking; it was identified by the botanist Lindley with the pilcorn of the old agriculture, and we see from Rogers 1 that it was in cultivation in England in the 13th century.
Dr Bunge found Bolshoy to consist of granite protruding from beneath non-fossiliferous deposits; while the promontory of Svyatoy Nos Qonsists of basalt hills, 1400 ft.
Flocks of geese and other birds come to the islands from the north (Bunge and Toll), as also the gull Lestris pomarina, which feeds chiefly on the lemming.
A scientific expedition under Dr Alexander Bunge (including Baron Eduard Toll) explored it in 1885-1886.