The eastern portion of the island, named Bunge's Land, is thickly covered with Post-Tertiary deposits.
Flocks of geese and other birds come to the islands from the north (Bunge and Toll), as also the gull Lestris pomarina, which feeds chiefly on the lemming.
A scientific expedition under Dr Alexander Bunge (including Baron Eduard Toll) explored it in 1885-1886.
The third theory is that of Bunge, who says that in chlorotic conditions there is an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen in the bowel, changing the food iron into sulphide of iron, which Bunge states cannot be absorbed.
Stockman's own experiments are, however, directly opposed to Bunge's view.