Additional evidence as to the structure of the molecule was discussed by Avogadro in 1811, and by Ampere in 1814.
Equal changes in temperature and pressure occasion equal changes in equal volumes of all gases and vapours - Avogadro deduced the law: Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules; and he showed that the relative weights of the molecules are determined as the ratios of the weights of equal volumes, or densities.
The weight contained in a molecule of hydrochloric acid, thus differing from Avogadro who chose the weight of a hydrogen molecule.
The development of the atomic theory and its concomitants - the laws of chemical combination and the notion of atoms and equivalents - at the hands of Dalton and Berzelius, the extension to the modern theory of the atom and molecule, and to atomic and molecular weights by Avogadro, Ampere, Dumas, Laurent, Gerhardt, Cannizzaro and others, have been noted.
According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
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