With the improvements in wind instruments this continued, as a more brilliant effect was gained.
Larger combinations, being semi-orchestral, especially where the double-bass and wind instruments are used, lend themselves to a somewhat lighter style; thus Beethoven's septet and Schubert's octet are both in the nature of a very large serenade.
- The longitudinal vibration of air in cylindrical pipes is made use of in various wind instruments.
Choral singing is a popular amusement, and is accompanied by the Spanish guitar and native wind-instruments.
Brewing, flour-milling, distilling, turnery, cotton-bleaching, cidermaking, metal-founding, tanning, and the manufacture of glass, paper, iron ware, nails, pins, wind-instruments, bricks and sugar are also carried on.