Ashley's Economic History, while Vinogradoff's Villenage in England and The Growth of the Manor, as well as Maitland's Domesday Studies, are of great importance to the student of early economic institutions.
For the developments of the Middle Ages See Serfdom and Villenage.
The descendants of the original settlers kept the land in their own hands, and they gradually brought the Sicel inhabitants to a state not unlike villenage.
- For more detailed information the reader is referred to the articles English Law; France: French Law and Institutions, Villenage; Manor; Scutage; Knight Service; Hide.
This increase of villenage morally depressed the peasantry, and widened still further the breach between the yeomanry and the gentry.