The Council of Clermont prescribed that the oath of adherence to the truce be taken every three years by all men above the age of twelve, whether noble, burgess, villein or serf.
By French feudal law, the villein had no appeal from his lord save to God (Pierre de Fontaines, Conseil, ch.
By the common law, if a villein were made a knight he was thereby enfranchised and accounted a gentleman, and if a person under age and in wardship were knighted both his minority and wardship terminated.
The number of families settled on the former is not given, but attention is called to the market which had been removed thence by the count to the neighbouring castle of Dunheved, which had two mills, one villein and thirteen bordars.
The materials for the formation of the villein class were already in existence in the Anglo-Saxon period.