After the reign of Marcus Aurelius (according to Mommsen) the equites were divided into: (a) viri eminentissimi, the prefects of the praetorian guard; (b) viri perfectissimi, the other prefects and the heads of the financial and secretarial departments; (c) viri egregii, first mentioned in the reign of Antoninus Pius, a title by right of the procurators generally.
The chief official of the lan is the landshi fding, under whom are secretarial and fiscal departments.
The secretarial class consisted of six categories: the nishanjis, the defterdars, the reis, the defter emini, the shakk-i-sani (or second class) defterdars and the shakk-i-salis (or third class) defterdars.
One of the cardinals acts as president, or prefect, as he is called; the congregation is assisted by a secretary and a certain number of inferior officials, for secretarial and office work.
As established by Mahommed II., the officials of the state were divided into four classes: (I) administrative; (2) ecclesiastical; (3) secretarial and (4) military.