Kronstadt, now the sole flourishing trade centre in the kingdom, defended itself with hired mercenaries against the robber barons.
Charles's prospects now improved, and he was enthroned at Buda on the 15th of June 1309, though his installation was not regarded as valid till he was crowned with the sacred crown (which was at last recovered from the robber-barons) at Szekesfehervar on the 27th of August 1310.
In his later years he made some attempts to maintain the public peace, and he distinguished himself by the vigour with which he punished robber barons in Thuringia; he also won back some of the crown lands and dues which had been stolen during the interregnum.
Histories of commerce and cities now rank beside those on war and kings, although there are readers still who prefer to follow the pennants or robber barons rather than to watch the slow evolution of modern conditions.
Some are similar to what 19th century American robber barons built.