The juice is then drawn off and pumped up to one of the double-bottomed defecators and redefecated, or, where juice-heaters have been used instead of defecators, the scums from the separators or subsiders are heated and forced through filter presses, the juice expressed going to the evaporators and the scum cakes formed in the filter presses to the fields as manure.
The water may be drainage-water from lands at a higher level; or it may be water from a neighbouring river; or it may be drainagewater accumulated from a farm and pumped up to the necessary level.
In the former case it is often difficult to obtain the brine at a density even approaching saturation, and chambers and galleries are sometimes excavated within the saliferous beds to increase the dissolving surface, and water let down fresh is pumped up as brine.
Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey.
Bond's self-assurance was so impregnable that his women needed ludicrous identities and pumped-up sexuality to compete.