The war between the two pretenders was long and doubtful; on a coin Vonones mentions a victory over Artabanus.
At the same time he crushed two pretenders to the throne - Firmus and Tetricus.
Pretenders stepped forward but with even less credentials than the recently departed Rupert Youngblood.
The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders.
Of the many pretenders to this dignity known in all periods of Moslem history the most famous was the first caliph of the Fatimite dynasty in North Africa, `Obaidallah al-Mandi, who reigned 909-933.