Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud the Ghaznevid, and proceeded westwards to Urjensh in the modern Khiva, where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend.
In 1873 he attacked Khiva, took the capital, and forced the khan to become a vassal of Russia.
The exact position of the native states of Bukhara and Khiva, which were later occupied by the Soviet Government, remained obscure.
The total area under cotton in 1916, including that grown in Khiva and Bukhara, was 1,838,215 acres, yielding about 18,000,000 poods or 290,000 tons of raw cotton.
As thus traced, the boundary in Central Asia includes the two khanates of Bokhara and Khiva, which, though nominally protected states, are to all intents and purposes integral parts of the Russian empire.