So say the third class of historians who regard all historical persons, from monarchs to journalists, as the expression of their age.
At the revolution of 1830 he signed the protestation of the journalists on the 28th of July 1830.
In 1830 he founded the National with Thiers and Armand Carrel, and signed the journalists' protest against the Ordonnances de juillet, but he refused to accept his share of the spoil after his party had won.
By this time he had a very large business as advocate, and was engaged on behalf of journalists in many press prosecutions.
Opposition newspapers were suppressed; cases in which Czech journalists were concerned were transferred to the German districts, so that they were tried by a hostile German jury.