In-case meaning

Because event X may occur.

I'll take an umbrella, in case it rains. (i.e. because it may rain later)

conjunction
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Because of the possibility of.

Take an umbrella in case of rain. (i.e. even if it's not raining, take an umbrella because it may rain later)

preposition
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In the event of.

In case of emergency, break glass. (i.e. if and only if there is an emergency)

preposition
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Origin of in-case

  • Middle English

    From Wiktionary