Kitchen-middens of England, Ireland and Denmark reveal the existence of the capercally, Tetrao urogallus, and of the great auk or gare-fowl, Alca impennis; both species long since vanished from those countries.
A special interest attaches to the great auk (Alca impennis), owing to its recent extinction and the value of its eggs to collectors.
168-170), which subsequently became known as the great auk or garefowl (q.v.); though the French equivalent Pingouin 2 preserves its old application, the word penguin is by English ornithologists always used for certain birds inhabiting the Southern Ocean, called by the French Manchots, the Spheniscidae of ornithologists.
The last indisputable great auk to be taken from St Kilda was in 1821.