The city of Kano appears on the map of the Arab geographer, Idrisi, A.D.
But even in these districts the botanist and the geographer can easily distinguish between the chern or thick forest of the Altai and the taiga of East Siberia.
Shemakha was the capital of the khanate of Shirvan, and was known to the Roman geographer Ptolemy as Kamachia.
If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.
But the most eminent Peruvian geographer is Dr Don Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan (1821-1886), whose Geografia del Peru appeared in 1861.