It therefore made the aspirates A, E, Q and the semi-vowel I into vowels, and apparently converted the semi-vowel Y = w into the vowel which it placed at the end of the alphabet and substituted for it as the sixth symbol of the alphabet the letter F with the old value of w.
The Greek aspirates were not the sounds which we represent by ph, th, ch (Scotch), but corresponded rather to the sound of the final consonants in such words as lip, bit, lick, the breath being audible after the formation of the consonant.
The differentiation of the Roman alphabet from the Greek is brought about (a) by utilizing the digamma for the unvoiced labio dental spirant F; (b) by dropping out the aspirates 0, (I), in the Chalcidian alphabet, whence the Roman is derived) from the alphabet proper and employing them on l as numerals, 0 'y' ?
Etruscan took over the three Greek aspirates, 0, 4), x, in their Chalcidian forms; 0 survives in Umbrian as 0, the others naturally disappear.
Szontagh, in America, have introduced a method of circulating the solution in each vat by forcing air into a vertical pipe communicating between the bottom and top of a tank, with the result that the bubbling of the air upward aspirates solution through the vertical pipe from below, at the same time aerating it, and causing it to overflow into the top of the tank.