Nevertheless, he became more anxious than ever to emancipate himself from French thraldom, and his first sign of independence was his visit to Venice in 1687, where he conferred on political affairs with Prince Eugene of Savoy and other personages, without consulting Louis.
He was among the first distinctively American writers, and protested vigorously against intellectual thraldom to the mother-country.
The further consequence was that all aspirations were subjected to the thraldom of the Church.
The fugitives were pursued and beleaguered by the earl of Morton and Lord Hume, who declared their purpose to rescue the queen from the thraldom of her husband.
Proclamations were issued in which the crime of Bothwell was denounced, and the disgrace of the country, the thraldom of the queen and the mortal peril of her infant son, were set forth as reasons for summoning all the lieges of the chief cities of Scotland to rise in arms on three hours' notice and join the forces assembled against the one common enemy.