Valonia, a material largely used by tanners, is the pericarp of an acorn obtained in the neighbouring oakwoods, and derives its name from Valona.
Agriculturists, tanners, merchants and mollahs (priests) were called from Turkestan, and small principalities sprang up on the Irtysh and the Ob.
When the king bestowed upon the tanners or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their branch of industry.
_ Almost the only manufacture extensively prosecuted is that of Morocco leather, mainly red and yellow, about 1,50o men being employed as tanners and shoemakers.
The bark of the larch is largely used in some countries for tanning; it is taken from the trunk only, being stripped from the trees when felled; its value is about equal to that of birch bark; but, according to the experience of British tanners, it is scarcely half as strong as that of the oak.