Valonia, a material largely used by tanners, is the pericarp of an acorn obtained in the neighbouring oakwoods, and derives its name from Valona.
Agriculturists, tanners, merchants and mollahs (priests) were called from Turkestan, and small principalities sprang up on the Irtysh and the Ob.
When the king bestowed upon the tanners or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to have a gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their branch of industry.
The manufacturers of Geneva formed in 1487 no fewer than 38 gilds, including tailors, hatters, mercers, weavers, tanners, saddle-makers, furriers, shoe-makers, painters on glass, &c. Goldsmiths are mentioned as early as 1290.
_ Almost the only manufacture extensively prosecuted is that of Morocco leather, mainly red and yellow, about 1,50o men being employed as tanners and shoemakers.
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