There are also many quarries of rock-salt, gypsum, lime and some of marble, alabaster, soapstone, &c. The annual revenue of ~he government from the leases, rents and royalties of mines does not amount to more than 15,000, and about 6000 of this amount is derived from the turquoise mines near Nishapur.
Finance.The fixed revenues of Persia are derived from (I) regular taxation (snaliat) composed of taxes on lands, flocks, herds shopkeepers, artisans and trade; (2) revenues from Crown lands~ (3) customs; (4) rents and leases of state monopolies.
The revenues from rents and leases of state monopolies are derived from posts, telegraphs, mines, mint, forests, banks, fisheries, factories, &c., and amount to about 110,000 per annum.
Out of the actual total revenue 500,000 is represented by customs and 110,000 by rents and leases of state monopolies, leaving 990,000 for maliat and revenues of Crown lands.
He at once applied himself to moral and administrative reform; declared against nepotism, introduced economy, abolished sinecures, wiped out the deficit (at the same time reducing rents), closed the gaming-houses, and issued a number of sumptuary ordinances.