There were two smaller kingdoms whose territories overlapped in between.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
- Diagram to illustrate contorted or twisted aestivation, in which the parts of the whorl are overlapped by each other in turn, and are twisted on their axis.
- Diagram to illustrate the quincuncial aestivation, in which the parts of the flower are arranged in a spiral cycle, so that I and 2 are wholly external, 4 and 5 are internal, and 3 is partly external and partly overlapped by 1.
In this case it will be seen that the part marked 5 has, by a slight change in position, become overlapped by 1.