Matters became still further strained on account of the outrages committed by the national troops, and such was the bitterness of feeling developed between the two factions, that an appeal to arms became inevitable.
On the 16th of June an attempt by an anarchist named Lega was made on Crispis life; on the 24th of June President Carnot was assassinated by the anarchist Caserio; and on the 3oth of June an Italian journalist was murdered at Leghorn for a newspaper attack upon anarchism a series of outrages which led the government to frame and parliament to adopt (11th July) a Public Safety Bill for the prevention of anarchist propaganda and crime.
Outrages on shipwrecked crews continued so rife that the question of occupation had to be taken up again; and in 1855 a project was formed for such a settlement, embracing a convict establishment.
On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.