Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
Hats and hammocks are made from the fibres of the mocora and toquilla palms, and sandals from the fibre of the Agave americana.
Other important manufactories are flour mills, of which there were over 500 in 1904; iron and steel works, of which there are 7 large establishments, including the immense plant at Monterey; 90 smelters for the reduction of precious metals; tanneries, potteries, and factories for the manufacture of hats, paper, linen, hammocks, harness and saddles, matches, explosives, aerated waters, soap, furniture, chocolate and sweetmeats.
Besides machine shops and shipbuilding facilities, the important industries are the weaving of hats and hammocks, and the preparation of salt fish; and there is a considerable export of rubber and straw hats.
Horses do not live, and all wheeled traffic is done by manual labour - hammocks and sedan-chairs are the customary means of locomotion.