It is necessary, however, to bear in mind that two classes of charters are to be found in force among the early American colonies: (r) Those granted to trading associations, which were often useful when the colony was first founded, but which formed a serious obstacle to its progress when the country had become settled and was looking forward to commercial expansion; the existence of these charters then often led to serious conflicts between the grantees of the charter and the colonies; ultimately elective assemblies everywhere superseded control of trading companies.
It is probable that in the neglect of the grantees to give proper leases to their tenants arose the Ulster tenant-right custom which attracted so much notice in more modern times.
To his adherents could only be inherited by the direct male descendants of the grantees, and failing such descendants, should revert to the Crown.
If this were the only doctrine applicable in the case there would be no reason why similar protection should be denied to all those who held under grantees of manors escheated after the Conquest.
Before the grantees had taken up their grant by acts of possession, Pondoland was annexed to Cape Colony.