Pop. (1900) 2752; (1905, state census) 533 2, of whom 2975 were foreign-born, including 1145 Finns, 676 Austrians and 325 Swedes.
They were probably Finns of the branch now represented by the Votiaks and Permiaks, forced northwards by later immigrants.
Finns to advance farther W., and a body of intermingled Tavasts and Karelians penetrated to the S.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
Of this boundary they are intermingled with Turko-Finns, but in the Ural mountains they reappear in a second compact body, and thence extend through S.