The smaller tribes have been exterminated, absorbed or driven farther west.
The Mussulman population of the Morea, taken unawares, was practically exterminated during the fury of the first few days; and, most fatal of all, the defection of the Greeks of the islands crippled the Ottoman navy by depriving it of its only effective sailors.
The larger animals which abounded in Natal in the first half of the 19th century have been exterminated or driven out of the country.
There are few trees on the island, for most of the valuable indigenous trees have been practically exterminated, such as the sandalwood, which the earlier navigators found one of the most valuable products of the island.
The vegetation of Krakatoa was completely exterminated in 1883 by a thick coat of red-hot pumice.