This collective administration, designed to cripple the action of the regent, encountered a twofold opposition from the nobles and the parlement; but on the 2nd of September 1715 the emancipated parlement set aside the will in favor of the duke of Orleans, who thus together with the title of regent had all the real power.
The townsman enriched by commerce and the emancipated peasant tried more or less valiantly to shake off the yoke of the feudal system, which had been greatly weakened, if not entirely broken down, by the crusades.
France had not escaped any of these conflicts; but Philip the Fair was the initiator or the instrument (it is difficult to say which) who was to put an end to both imperial and theocratic dreams, and to the international crusades; who was to remove the political axis from the centre of Europe, mueh to the benefit of the western monarchies, now definitely emancipated from the feudal yoke and firmly organized against both the Church and the barons.
About the middle of the 18th century a learned Dalmatian monk, Andrea Kachich Mioshich by name, emancipated himself from the yoke of pseudo-classicism and slavery to Western models.
Nor is that obscurity to any appreciable degree illuminated by the tendency also noticeable in idealist writers to find the true possession of freedom only in a self emancipated from the influence of irrational passion, and liberated by knowledge from the dominion of chance or the despotism of unknown natural forces.