(6) Period of Ba,~zri MamelukesThe dynasties that succeeded the Ayytibites till the conquest of Egypt by the Ottomans bore the title Dynasties of the Turks, but are more often called Mameluke dynasties, because the sultans were drawn from the enfranchised slaves who constituted the court, and officered the army.
Stamford discontinued representation for some 150 years after the reign of Edward II.; Grantham was enfranchised in 1463 and Boston in 1552.
Finally, behind this bourgeoisie, and afar off, came the crowd of serfs, rustics whom the acquisition of land had gradually enfranchised, and who were the more eager to enjoy their definitive liberation because it was close at hand.
He saw that to establish peace in Ireland the Roman Catholics would have to be enfranchised; he realized that to enfranchise them in a separated Ireland would be to subject the proud Protestant minority to an impossible domination, and to establish not peace but war.
It was separate from Italy proper, the Aesis first and then the Rubicon being the boundary on the east, and the Arnus the boundary on the west, so that, for example, Luca remained outside the boundaries of Italy proper, even in 89 B.C. Romanization had, however, progressed considerably, the foundation of colonies and the construction of roads had gone on during the 2nd century, and the whole district as far as the Padus was given the Roman franchise in 89 B.C., while the Transpadanes received Latin rights, and were fully enfranchised forty years later.