This category includes German places in the Kingdom of Saxony, in the Prussian province of Saxony, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in the Duchies of Anhalt, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen, and in the Principalities of Reuss, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
But in 1549 Pier Luigi was assassinated by his outraged subjects, and the emperor thereupon claimed the two duchies for his son-in-law Ottavio Farnese, Paul's grandson.
The group of small duchies and principalities lying between Prussia, Hesse-Nassau, Bavaria and the kingdom of Saxony.
He was at once attracted into the political movement for the defence of the rights of the Elbe duchies, of which Kiel was the centre.
During the next two years he continued to support the cause of the duchies, and in 1850, with Carl Samwer, he published a history of the dealings of Denmark with Schleswig-Holstein, Die Herzogthiimer Schleswig-Holstein land das Kiinigreich Ddnemark seit dem Jahre 1806 (Hamburg, 1850).