- ancient region along the lower courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: S part of Babylonia
- Babylonia: so called during Chaldean supremacy, c. 6th cent.
An ancient kingdom of southern Mesopotamia. Founded c. 1000 BC, it eventually came to dominate Babylonia, reaching the height of its power under Nebuchadnezzar II. The Chaldean empire was destroyed by Persians in 539 BC.
From Ancient Greek Χαλδαία (Khaldaia).