In the extreme north, extending southward from the great Bolivian highlands, there are several parallel ranges, the most prominent of which are: the Sierra de Santa Catalina, from which the detached Cachi, Gulumpaji and Famatina ranges project southward; and the Sierra de Santa Victoria, south of which are the Zenta, Aconquija, Ambato and Ancaste ranges.
The Portuguese being in his rear, and Wellesley closing with him, the only good road of retreat available lay through Amarante, but he now learned that Beresford had taken this important point from Silveira; so he was then compelled, abandoning his guns and much baggage, to escape, with a loss of some s000 men, over the mountains of the Sierra Catalina to Salamonde, and thence to Orense.
There are large woollen factories at Cuzco and Lima, the Santa Catalina factory at the latter place turning out cloth and cashmere for the army, blankets, counterpanes and underclothing.
West of the coast on the 29th parallel, which is fertile and stocked with cattle; Cerros, off Viscaino Bay, and Santa Margarita, which partly shelters Magdalena Bay, on the Pacific side; and Angel de la Guarda, Tiburon, San Marcos, Carmen, Monserrate, Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz, San Jose, Espiritu Santo and Cerralvo in the Gulf.
Mention may also be made of the churches of Santo Domingo (begun in 1578), Santa Catalina (1700), San Agustin (1608), Santa Clara (1644), La Merced (1744, with a collection of oil paintings) and San Felipe (1693).