In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
The Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.
When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).
The population, of which more than twothirds are Bulgarians, and about one-sixth Spanish Jews, was 20,501 in 1881, 30,428 in 1888, 46,593 in 1893 and 82,187 in 1907.
The town was taken by the Bulgarians under Krum in A.D.