Though aware of Bismarcks hostility towards Italy, of the conclusion of the Austro-German alliance of 1879, and of the undisguised ill-will of France, Italy not only made no attempt to crush an agitation as mischievous as it was futile, but granted a state funeral to General Avezzana, president of the Irredentist League.
He also wrote Aus des Grossen Kurfarsten letzten Jahren (Berlin, 1897) and Bismarcks Bildung, ihre Quellen and ihre Ausserungen (Berlin, 1904).
The Polish rising of 1863 came just in time to prevent a threatened Franco-Russian alliance; the timid and double-faced attitude of both France and Austria during the revolt left them isolated in Europe, while Bismarcks ready assistance to Russia assured at least the benevolent neutrality in the coming struggle with the Habsburg power.
Bismarcks reply was to deny the competency of the diet to interfere; and in the Prussian parliament the minister of war moved for a special grant for the creation of a war-harbour at Kid.
Th rapidity and overwhelming character of the Prussian sdccesi ensured the triumph of Bismarcks policy.