Which the Chalcidian Greeks used in the 6th century B.C. for may be derived, according to the most widely accepted theory, from a primitive form of Samech, which is recorded only in the abecedaria of the Chalcidian colonies in Italy.
It is very unlikely that a people borrowing an alphabet which was uniformly written from left to right should have used it in order to write from right to left, or (30uvrp04riOOP. Hence Hempl contends 3 that Wimmer's view must be discarded, and that the runes were derived about 600 B.C. from a western Greek alphabet which closely resembled the Formello alphabet (one of the ancient Chalcidian abecedaria) and the Sabellic and North Etruscan alphabets.
In its earliest form, as it appears in inscriptions on various articles found in Schleswig and in Scandinavian countries, it consisted of twenty-four letters, all of which occur in abecedaria in England.
A, 18 and 24, we have the archaic letter san (M =s) of the abecedaria (E.
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