Surface-structure definitions

In early theories of generative grammar, the abstract syntactic structure of a construction, derived from deep structure, that determines and corresponds most closely with observed word order.
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In transformational grammar, the formal structure of a sentence as it actually occurs in speech and as distinguished from the abstract, underlying deep structure.
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Surface structure is a sentence in the form that it is heard and spoken.

An example of surface structure is that's my book.

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