grafted onto rootstock.
In some varieties, as the Guayaquil and Mexican, the whole plant, including the rootstock, is pulled up.
Each vineyard block is managed uniquely, adjusting according to varietal, terroir, clone, rootstock and row orientation.
Sometimes there is attached to the rootstock a portion of stem, which is round and not prickly, differing in these respects from that of Smilax officinalis, which is square and prickly.
Some of my happiest memories are of my father planting rootstock, pruning vines, and simply loving every minute of his effort in our family vineyard.