A numerical measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, usually measured on a scale of 0 to 14. Neutral solutions (such as pure water) have a pH of 7, acidic solutions have a pH lower than 7, and alkaline solutions have a pH higher than 7. The pH of lemon juice is 2.4; that of household ammonia is 11.5. The normal pH for human blood is 7.4. &diamf3; The letters pH stand for potential of hydrogen, since pH is effectively a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (that is, protons) in a substance. The pH scale was devised in 1923 by Danish biochemist Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen (1868–1969).