The Medici papacy.
The papacy represents the head of the Catholic Church.
The papacy of John Paul II ended in 2005, after the pope's long battle with illness ended.
The struggle between them has been represented as one of a patriotic archbishop resisting the encroachments of the papacy on the Church of England.
Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
In 1815 it returned to the papacy, but was united to Italy in 1860.
During his short reign Calixtus strengthened the authority of the papacy in southern Italy by military expeditions, and restored several buildings within the city of Rome.