There were also attached to a great household physicians, artists, secretaries, librarians, copyists, preparers of parchment, as well as pedagogues and preceptors of different kinds - readers, grammarians, men of letters and even philosophers - all of servile condition, besides accountants, managers and agents for the transaction of business.
Bibliography: Rivista delle biblioteche e degli archivi (1888), published monthly at Rome and Florence, the official organ of librarians and archivists; Giornale della libreria della tipografia (1888), supplement to the Bibliografia italiana; Bollettino di bibliografia e storia delle scienze matematiche (1898); La Bibliofilia (1899), Florence, monthly; Raccolta Vinciana (1904).
Social science (r900) - which offers courses in commerce, administration, modern history and practical philanthropy - and a school of education, first opened in 1907, to train secondary and college teachers and school principals and superintendents; a college of law (1868); a college of medicine (1870), including a training school for nurses (1897); a college of homoeopathic medicine (1877), including a nurses' training school (1894); a college of dentistry (1882); a college of pharmacy (1885); a graduate college; a college of applied science (1903), with courses in civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, municipal and sanitary engineering and courses in chemistry; a summer school for teachers and librarians and a university extension department.
The first four librarians were Zenodotus, Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of Byzantium, and Aristarchus.
From their acquaintance with Latin and Greek literature they must have been men of letters by profession, and very probably secretaries or librarians to persons of distinction.