In 1619 it was captured by the imperialist general, Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy, and suffered so severely that the citizens opened their gates to his opponent, Ernst von Mansfeld.
Novara, Vercelli, Asti and Tortona swelled its ranks; only Pavia and Montferrat remained imperialist between.
Considered in the light of after events, this putting the necessity of food-taxes in the forefront was decidedly injudicious; but imperialist conviction and enthusiasm were more conspicuous than electioneering_ tact in the launching of Mr Chamberlain's new scheme.
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
The theory was purely democratic, but was all ready to be transformed, by means of a series of fictions and implications, into an imperialist doctrine; and in like manner it contained a visionary plan of reformation which ended, not in the separation of the church from the state, but in the subjection of the church to the state.