Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.
- The Stanhope Iron Hand-press.
The iron hand-press, such as the Albion or the Columbian, used for the pulling of proofs, or for the printing of limited editions de luxe.
- Payne & Sons' Albion Hand-press.
As its name implies, the type bed and impression platen are both flat surfaces as in the hand-press, but as they are self-inking and are easily driven, the average output is about moo copies per hour, and but one operator is required, whereas two men at a handpress can produce only 250 copies in the same time.