The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
The average output of the modern hand-press, when all is made ready for running, is about two hundred and fifty impressions per hour.
Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.
The iron hand-press, such as the Albion or the Columbian, used for the pulling of proofs, or for the printing of limited editions de luxe.
The hand-press has already been sufficiently described, and we may proceed to deal with the other classes.