Ethernet definitions

ē'thər-nĕt'
A trademark for a LAN protocol.
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A system for connecting and coordinating the components of a local area network.
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Ethernet is defined as a trademark for a system that coordinates the components of a local area network.

An example of Ethernet is the cable system that connects the computer network of a small business office.

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Robert M. Metcalfe and his associates at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC) first developed both the concept of a local area network (LAN) and the enabling technology.That first network originally was known as the Altos Aloha Network, because it connected Altos computers through a network based on the University of Hawaii's AlohaNet packet radio system technology. Subsequently (1973), it was renamed Ethernet, from luminiferous ether, the omnipresent passive medium once theorized to pervade all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic energy.The original Ethernet supported a transmission rate of 2.94 Mbps over coaxial cable. Xerox commercialized the technology, renaming it the Xerox Wire. Gordon Bell, vice president of engineering at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, subsequently acquired by Compaq, which later merged with Hewlett-Packard), hired Metcalfe as a consultant in 1979 specifically to develop a LAN network technology that would not conflict with the Xerox patent. Metcalfe brought DEC, Intel, and Xerox together to form into a joint venture known as DIX, which improved the technology, increasing the bandwidth to 10 Mbps and reverting to the name Ethernet.The technology quickly became a de facto standard. In February 1980, the IEEE established Project 802 to develop a set of LAN standards. In December 1982, the first standard was published and circulated as IEEE 802.3, which actually is a variation on the now obsolete Ethernet standard. Although the two do not interoperate, the terms 802.3 and Ethernet are used interchangeably in informal conversation. Ethernet has evolved considerably since 1980. The signaling rate has increased from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps, and 10 Gbps. The original 10Base5 specification for coaxial cable has given way to 10/100/1000Base-T specifications for twisted pair, and various 10GBase-XX specifications for optical fiber. Relatively unchanged have been the frame format and the protocols for medium access control (MAC), which include carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) and carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA).The Ethernet frame, as illustrated in Figure E-3, is formatted as follows.
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The standard network technology that connects computers to each other and to the Internet via cables. Defined as the 802.3 standard by the IEEE, the Ethernet access method is the global standard. Companies have hundreds and thousands of PCs wired together via Ethernet, and almost every reference to "local network," "LAN," and "network ready" is Ethernet. All new computers have it built in, and old machines can be retrofitted (see Ethernet adapter). See LAN.Ethernet Is Wired - Wi-Fi Is WirelessWired Ethernet and wireless Wi-Fi exist together in virtually every home and office. Desktop computers may be wired, but phones and tablets need Wi-Fi, and a wireless router supports both. See Wi-Fi and wireless router.10/100, 10/100/1000 and Gigabit DevicesA 10/100 Ethernet port transmits 10 and 100 Mbps, while the maximum speed of a 10/100/1000 "Gigabit" port is 1 Gbps. Ethernet uses the highest common speed between sending and receiving devices.Ethernets above one gigabit are separate and do not mix with 10/100/1000 components. For example, there is no such thing as a single 10/100/1000/10000 port (see Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet).TCP/IP and Ethernet Are GlobalTCP/IP prepares the data that Ethernet transmits. Together, they are the global local area network (LAN) standards. For details, see Ethernet and TCP/IP.HistoryInvented by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs at Xerox PARC in 1973, Ethernet first ran at just under 3 Mbps. Metcalfe joined Digital Equipment Corporation where he facilitated a joint venture with Intel and Xerox to collaborate further, and Ethernet Version 1 was finalized in 1980. In 1983, the IEEE approved the Ethernet 802.3 standard. See 100Base-T, Ethernet adapter, Ethernet switch and automotive Ethernet.ETHERNET CABLE MAXIMUM LENGTHS (From Device to Switch) TWISTED PAIR (Metal Wires) 10Base-T 328 ft/100 m 100Base-T 328 ft/100 m 1000Base-T 328 ft/100 m OPTICAL FIBER MM=multimode fiber SM=singlemode FOIRL MM .6 mi/1 km 10Base-FL MM 1.2 mi/2 km 100Base-FX MM 1.2 mi/2 km 100Base-FX SM 6 mi/10 km.
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In 1985, the U.S. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) developed standards for Local Area Networks (LANs) called the IEEE 802 standards. These standards presently form the basis of most networks. One of the IEEE 802 standards—the IEEE 802.3—is known as “Ethernet,” the most prevalently used LAN technology around the globe. Ethernet was designed by the Xerox Corporation in 1972, and in its simplest form it used a passive bus operated at 10 Mbps. A 50-Ohm coaxial cable connected the computers in the network. Though a single LAN can have as many as 1,024 attached computer systems, in practice most LANs have far fewer than this. Typically, one or several coaxial cable pieces are joined end-to-end to form the bus, also known as an “Ethernet cable segment.” Each Ethernet cable segment is terminated at both ends by 50-Ohm resistors and is usually grounded at one end for safety reasons. Thus, computers attach to the cable using network interface cards and/or transceivers. Since its birth, Ethernet has grown to much higher speeds. For example, at the start of 2004, 10 GBit/s (standardized as 802.3ae) network adapters were introduced. Furthermore, the once error-prone, single-cable bus architecture has evolved into a notable error-reduced star topology using hubs and switches. Fairhurst, G. Ethernet. [Online, January 9, 2001.] G. Fairhurst Website. http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry/course/lan-pages/enet.html.
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Alternative capitalization of Ethernet.
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