CSF lactate ³ 4 nmol/L has high sensitivity and specificity for bacterial meningitis following craniotomy.
The Gram stain is performed on a sediment of the CSF and is positive in at least 60 percent of cases of bacterial meningitis.
The bacteria which cause bacterial meningitis live in the back of the nose and throat region and are carried by 10 to 25 percent of the population.
At least 50 kinds of bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis.
As of 2004, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis were the leading causes of bacterial meningitis.