- He undertook.
- An enforceable promise or
undertaking that is not under seal.
An action for expectation damages caused by the breach of a promise or a
contract not under seal.
Such a promise that is made orally or in writing.
Such a promise that is presumed due to individual’s conduct
or the circumstances of the situation.
An action based the breach of an implied promise or contract
to pay a debt. Also called common assumpsit.
An action for expectation damages based on the breach of an
express promise or contract to pay a debt.
A defendant’s claim, in the form of a pleading, that
he or she did not promise or undertake any obligation as alleged in a