country in SC Asia, between Iran and Pakistan: 250,001 sq mi (647,500 sq km); cap. Kabul
A landlocked country of southwest-central Asia. Frequently dominated since ancient times by foreign empires, Afghanistan gained full independence only in 1919. The USSR invaded in 1979 but met fierce resistance from Afghan insurgents and withdrew its troops in 1989. The resulting power vacuum led to the rise of the Taliban, which established strict Islamic rule over most of the country. The Taliban was overthrown by a US-led invasion in 2001 that set up a pro-Western government, although armed resistance continued in many parts of the country. Kabul is the capital and the largest city.x
- KABUL RIVER, a river of Afghanistan, 300 main length.
- Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
- In Afghanistan, Persia, Asia Minor and Syria, winter and spring appear to be the chief seasons of condensation.
- Above the crossing-point of the Russian Trans-Caspian railway at Charjui, the main channel of the Oxus river becomes the northern boundary of Afghanistan, separating that country from Russia, and so continues to its source in Victoria Lake of the Great Pamir.
- Where the Oxus river takes its great bend to the north from Ishkashim, the breadth of the Afghan territory intervening between that river and the main water-divide of the Hindu Kush is not more than 10 or 12 m.; and east of the Pamir extension of Afghanistan, where the Beyik Pass crosses the Sarikol range and drops into the Taghdumbash Pamir, there is but the narrow width of the Karachukar valley between the Sarikol and the Murtagh.